The oldest known settlement in the area occupied today by Warsaw appeared approx. 10000 years BC. in the final period of the last glaciation, when this part of Mazovia was covered by the tundra. The so-called. reindeer hunters. From 9000-6000 years BC. tribes of hunters and fishermen came to this place. Later, especially in the Stone Age, there were tribes also engaged in the production economy. Found cemeteries and individual graves date from this period.

Warsaw was inhabited in large numbers in the Bronze Age, as evidenced by numerous archaeological finds of bronze objects.

At the beginning of our era, newcomers from Pomerania appeared here, and also the guests. The oldest permanent settlement in Warsaw was a stronghold situated in Stary Bródno on the right side of the Vistula River. It is dated on the 10th-11th centuries. Solec was next (already mentioned in the 10th century. as the seat of the princely customs chamber) and Truck (mentioned in 1065 r.) located near the Vistula crossing on both sides. Later, other permanent settlement centers were established, m.in. gródek (the area of ​​the Botanical Garden) and the Jazdów settlement. W 1262 r. the stronghold in Jazdów was plundered by Lithuanians. At that time, Prince Siemowit I of Czersk died, and his son – Konrad II was kidnapped. W 1282 r. Jazdów was plundered again, this time by the Duke of Płock, Bolesław II (brother of Konrad II). Probably then prince Konrad II, the ruler of Czerski Mazovia, he moved the town and the settlement approx. 3 km to the north. A stronghold was built in the area of ​​today's Old Town (at the site of the Royal Castle) and the settlement of Warsaw. The settlement developed in the place of the easiest crossing of the Vistula River at the intersection of trade routes: road from Silesia to Lithuania and along the Vistula River – from Ruthenia Halicka in Pomerania, as well as the water link from Małopolska to Pomerania (important because of the salt flushing with it). From the middle of. XIII w., in connection with the development of cities in Pomerania: Toruń, Chelmno, Elbląg and Gdańsk, the commercial role of the Vistula began to increase.

The exact date of the location of Warsaw is unknown. Traditionally, this is attributed to Conrad II probably between 1286 a 1289 r. Some do, that Duke Bolesław II did it after the unification of Mazovia, probably in 1294 r. W 1307 r. existed in Warsaw: castellany, castle, defensive walls and 2 churches. The city was often visited by the Dukes of Mazovia. The rank of Warsaw is evidenced by the fact that in the presence of the Pope's legates in the years 1338-1339 trial between King Casimir the Great and the Teutonic Order over the Chełmno and Dobrzyń lands. Prince Siemowit III in the years 1352-54 founded the Augustinian monastery brought from Bohemia (church of st. Martin). W 1378 r. Prince Janusz I the Elder founded the Church of St.. Spirit and the hospital. The city was governed by Chełmno law. In years 1379-89 the city walls were built from the side of the Vistula and connected to the castle and the castle was rebuilt (mostly wooden). W 1398 r. Duke Janusz I the Elder moved the collegiate church from Czersk to Warsaw (church of st. John the Baptist). W 1406 r. she had an erection.

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